Modern power supplies (the safest!) are usually certified with something called 80 MORE, also known as 80+. This is a universal efficiency rating meant to tell you how well your PSU will perform under certain degrees of electrical load, relative to the advertised wattage, but it is not infallible. Those explosive power supplies we mentioned earlier were 80+ Gold certified, which goes to show that even this quality standard cannot guarantee absolute safety.
Usually an example 80+ Standard 450w power supply is guaranteed to consistently output at least 80% of 450 watts, 100% of the time. As you start moving towards the higher end power supplies, you’ll eventually hit the 80+ Titanium rating, which promises at least 90% efficiency, 100% of the time. In most (but not all) cases these PSUs are quality tested and still very unlikely to cause shorts or hazards, and are often quite durable – they last for years before they need to be replaced or upgraded.
When shopping for PSUs that meet the 80+ standard or higher, your price range should ideally be between $75 and $150. If you’re building a gaming PC, you’ll probably also want to invest in a power supply with space-saving modular cabling in your case, which means you should end up budgeting around $100-$200. It’s worth mentioning that new PSUs come out all the time, and some products are simply more durable and better built than others, regardless of brand or price, which means it’s always worth worth getting several opinions before making a final purchase. Tom’s gear top rated power supplies 2022 is a great place to start weighing your options.